Two Different Types of Cancer

There are many different forms of cancer that can affect every part of your body. Cancer Treatment Mexico outlines two of them:

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a malignant tumour (cancerous) that originates in the cells of the bladder, the organ that stores and releases urine. Usually, bladder cancer begins in the inner lining layer of the organ and grows into the bladder wall. The inside of the bladder is lined with a layer of cells called urothelial cells, and tumors can begin in these lining cells in any of the structures of the bladder.

Common symptoms of bladder cancer include blood in the urine causing it to discolour, painful urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate without passing liquid. These symptoms aren’t definite indications of bladder cancer, as other illness may cause them. However, anyone experiencing such symptoms should see a physician.

Tests for bladder cancer may include a physical exam to feel for any tumors, laboratory examinations of urine, an intravenous pyelogram, or cystoscopy. Patients may receive one or all of these tests.

The main types of treatment for bladder cancer are surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy. Based on the stage of your cancer, your doctor may recommend one or more of these.

Brain Cancer

Brain cancer is a general term used to describe many types of tumors that start in the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system, or CNS). Tumors in different areas of the CNS may be treated differently. Most brain tumors come from cancers that started somewhere else in the body and metastasized, or spread, to the brain. Primary brain tumors are tumors that begin in the brain, and may start in any of the different types of tissues or cells within the brain or spinal cord.

The diagnosis of a tumour begins when common symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headaches, behavioural or emotional changes, impaired judgment, and/or sensory changes develop. If symptoms suggest a CNS tumour is present, your doctor will take a complete medical history and perform a physical examination to evaluate brain and spinal cord function (neurologic exam).

In order to see where within the brain a tumour may be located, doctors most often use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans. While these tests may help your healthcare professional find any unusual masses, a definite diagnosis is made only by removing some of the tumour tissue for examination, called a biopsy.

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors may be treated by surgical removal, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, although a combination of treatments is common. Cortisone-like drugs are given to reduce the swelling that often occurs around brain tumors, which may help to relieve headaches and other symptoms.